Japanese Grammar Lesson 11: Adjectives and Adverbs


As you might have noticed already, there are two types of adjectives: the i-adjectives and the na-adjectives. There is not a meaning difference between them (why they are “i” or “na” type), there are simply different words, which are divided in two groups.

As the name indicates, i-adjectives end in “i”, and na-adjectives end in “na”. There is a little difference, which is when writing a sentence, the “i” in i-adjectives appears, but the “na” from na-adjectives doesn’t. For example:

1) 私の家は (わたしのいえはせま, watashi no ie wa semai) -> My house is small.

2) 私の家はきれい (わたしのいえはきれい, watashi no ie wa kirei) -> My house is pretty.

This was the present pattern.

In the past pattern, the “i” from i-adjectives gives place to “katta”, and in na-adjectives you only have to add “datta”. Examples below:

1) 私の家はせまかった (わたしのいえはせまかった, watashi no ie wa semakatta) -> My house was small.

2) 私の家はきれいだった (わたしのいえはきれいだった, watashi no ie wa kirei datta) -> My house was pretty.

Starting from the adjectives, it is really easy to transform them in adverbs.
For i-adjectives, you only have to substitute the “i” for “ku”. For na-adjectives you just add “ni” instead of “na”. New examples:
a) 私の友達は走った (わたしのともだちははやくはしった, watashi no tomodachi wa hayaku hashitta) -> My friend ran quickly.
b) 子供は静か宿題をしている (こどもはしずかにしゅくだいをしている, kodomo wa shizukani shukudai wo shiteiru) -> The children are doing the homework quietly.
There are more examples, but for now, isn’t it simple? 🙂
NEXT LESSON (coming soon…)

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